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Jul 25, 2008 陳 tinper3

main idea:討論功能原理的不足

功能原理,

就是在說:"外力對物體(系統)所做的功=物體總能量的變化"      

             ΔW=ΔE

物體的總能量包括了動能,位能,光能,聲能,熱能等等.......


p.s.  

所謂的作功,是在描述施力者(場源)受力者之間能量轉移的關係


我們先列舉個例子來拋磚引玉吧!

 

有一冷鐵球吸收熱能,體積膨脹,其質心因而上升,

則此時此鐵球位能增加 .

上述的情形能用功能原理來解釋嗎?

有誰對鐵球作了功呢?

 

功能原理和作功,

這兩者都有場源的概念.

而我在高中所學的"廣義的位能定義",

是指說位能是在保守力場中的場源與受力者兩者所共同擁有的.

這定義也是有場源的概念

 

但像上述鐵球的問題,

我們找的到場源嗎?

找不到場源的時候,難道就要再想像出一個場源才行嗎?

 

至今我所學到有關能量轉移的問題,

都離不開含有場源的概念,

但上述的問題是確確實實存在的呀!

紀延平老師所要說的,

就是以另一種角度去想同一件事情:

用"場—物體(系統)"的概念.

我們在乎的是場與物體(系統)之間的關係,

而不是場源與物體(系統)之間的關係.

 

所以,

場-物體(系統)的觀念再下去看,

我們就不用把位能侷限在是:施力者與受力者所共有

而是:

" 如果一物體處在某個保守力場中,

  那麼,此物體就具有它自己的位能. "

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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